Charging Infrastructure

EVs can refuel (i.e. charge) at electric vehicle supply equipment (ESVE) in different locations, such as homes, workplaces, or public charging stations, which require different charging infrastructure.

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EVs can refuel (i.e. charge) at electric vehicle supply equipment (ESVE) in different locations, such as homes, workplaces, or public charging stations. There are many decisions to consider in the deployment of EVSE, including their placement, type (e.g. level 1, level 2, or DC fast charging), business model, and the total number of EVSE to deploy in an area over time. Different market conditions can enable distinct EVSE business models that vary by investment, ownership, and operations.   

Table 1: ESVE Charger Types for Passenger Vehicles 


Level 1

Level 2

DC Fast Charge

Source: ClipperCreek, Inc., 2016

 Source: Maine Clean Communities, 2018

Source: Erik Nelsen/NREL, 2017


120 V AC Plug

240 V AC Plug (for residential) or 208 V AC Plug (for commercial)

480 V AC Input

Charging range (miles)*

2 to 5 in 1 hour of charging

10 to 20 in 1 hour of charging

60 to 80 in 20 minutes of charging

Typical location of EVSE

Residential; Workplaces

Residential; Workplaces; Public


*Charging times can range from less than 30 minutes to 20 hours or more based on the type of EVSE, as well as the type of battery, how depleted it is, and it's capacity.

Source: U.S. Department of Energy – Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

For EVs to utilize charging infrastructure most efficiently, technical standards and communication protocols must be established. These standards and protocols enable coordination between EVs and chargers and ensure EVs within a jurisdiction are compatible with new and existing charging infrastructures.

Key Actions for EV Market Development

To address charging infrastructure needs, decision-makers can take the following actions:

  • Understand the importance of consumer preferences with respect to driving range and charging convenience.
  • Establish EVSE standards and communication protocols so all EVs are compatible with all EVSE and all EVSE are safe and efficient.
  • Assess the amount of EVSE required for different levels of EV deployment. Provide adequate charging stations for consumers and monitor the utilization over time.
  • Identify viable business models for public EVSE. 

Reading List and Case Studies

Electric Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2021

Many standards development organizations (SDOs) are working to develop codes and standards needed for the utilization of alternative fuel vehicle technologies. This brief document contains two graphics that list SDOs that are developing standards related to electric vehicle deployment.

Electrifying Transit: A Guidebook for Implementing Battery Electric Buses

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2021

The use of battery electric bus (BEBs) fleets is becoming more attractive to cities seeking to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. This guidebook is designed for decision-makers who may be considering implementing battery electric busses (BEBs), and includes potential solutions to address challenges such as upfront cost premiums, planning burdens, and BEB range that may slow development. BEB facts, data, and considerations for policymakers are identified, along with potential impacts of BEB on the electric grid and specific operation and maintenance considerations for BEBs. The report also discusses BEB costs and financing options, safety of BEBs and the associated codes and standards, hazards, and emergencies. Finally, the report examines project execution and long-term planning considerations. 

Surat Municipal Corporation Bus Electrification Assessment

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2020

This report analyzes operational feasibility and life cycle cost of battery electric busses (BEBs) that are proposed to replace diesel busses currently operated by the Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) in Surat, India. Using a backwards-looking model, NREL and its partners used GPS data collected in the current bus routes to determine power requirements for BEBs. The report provides a range of power requirements under various operational conditions, and modeled battery degradation for several battery chemistries using the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) model. The life cycle cost analysis predicted that SMC could feasibly electrify several routes and reduce operational costs. 

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Business Model and Tariff Design Support to the Lao PDR

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2020

This presentation covers an overview of Electric Vehicle (EV) and EV Supply Equipment (EVSE) deployment objectives in the Lao PDR, and provides an introduction to EV and EVSE government and utility motivations, introduction to business models for EVSE in the Lao PDR. 

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: An Overview of Technical Standards to Support Lao PDR Electric Vehicle Market Development

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2020

This presentation is an overview of the technical standards governing electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and was presented to support the development of the Lao PDR electric vehicle market. The presentation overviews EVSE, and then covers technical standards related to EVSE to vehicle connections and EVSE to grid connections. 

Foundations of an Electric Mobility Strategy for the City of Mexicali

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2020

This report seeks to formulate a customized, practical, and data-driven framework to enable the city of Mexicali to transition their transport sector to cleaner electric mobility. The report discusses how Mexicali can utilize vehicle fleets as early adopters of plug-in electric vehicle technology, including ways to prioritize fleets for electrification, incentivize fleets to purchase plug-in electric vehicles, and understand how transport electrification can facilitate mass transit.

Reducing EV Charging Infrastructure Costs

Rocky Mountain Institute, 2020

The primary aim of this study is to arm stakeholders with a comprehensive analysis of the costs involved in deploying EV charging infrastructure to ensure greater program success and a more rapid transition to transportation electrification.

Electric Mobility and Development

The World Bank and the International Association of Public Transport, 2018

This paper assembles evidence, viewpoints, and analysis to help governments design and implement electric mobility programs that are effective at achieving their climate, economic, fiscal, technical, institutional, and policy goals.

Costs Associated with Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Factors to consider in the implementation of electric vehicle charging stations

New West Technologies LLC and U.S. Department of Energy, 2015

This report provides information about the costs associated with purchasing, installing, and owning non-residential EVSE. Cost information is compiled from various studies around the country, as well as input from EVSE owners, manufacturers, installers, and utilities.

Draft Study on Infrastructure and Enabling Environment for Road Electric Transport in SAARC Member States

India Smart Grid Forum, 2018

The India Smart Grid Forum has conducted this study to identify and evaluate key enablers of EV implementation and assess the readiness of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member countries in terms of policy, technology, commercial and institutional aspects. Based on the assessment, implementable recommendations have been provided to facilitate EV penetration in SAARC member states. An Electric Vehicle Maturity Model (EVMM) has been created to assess these parameters.

A Comprehensive Guide to Electric Vehicle Managed Charging

Smart Electric Power Alliance, 2019

This comprehensive guide provides readers with a complete understanding of managed charging. This includes potential benefits, the current industry state, utility program requirements, how managed charging communication pathways relay signals, and the vendor landscape to date. In addition, the report discusses never-before-published data collected and vetted by Smart Electric Power Alliance and numerous experts in the field.

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